Question 29 a as a result b in contrast c though d because

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Tribal Tourism Development: A Handbook for Planners

UNDERSTANDING TOURISM PART 1

Before tourism became a major industry, small businesses met the needs of travelers across the world. These focused mainly on providing food and lodging. As long distance travel became increasingly available to lớn the general public, businesses expanded lớn meet the needs & desires of the visitors and economic opportunities within the travel industry flourished. The rapid growth did not come without growing pains. Many communities have suffered as a direct result of tourism and are now trying khổng lồ cope with some of the negative effects of tourism in their area.

Bạn đang xem: Question 29 a as a result b in contrast c though d because

Tourism is big business:According to lớn the World Tourism Organization, tourism is the world"s largestindustry.

When you begin the tourism development process, it is important to lớn understand the entire picture of the visitor industry và the different types of tourism development. This section will give you a basic idea of the different types of tourism development as well as information about developing cultural tourism with care và respect for the community và environment.

A. GENERAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT B. ECO-TOURISM C. CULTURAL TOURISM và CULTURAL INTERPRETATION D. TOURISM WITH INTEGRITY

A. General Tourism Development PART 1

General tourism (known as Industrial Tourism in Alaska) regards the economics of tourism development without necessarily considering community or environmental impacts. General tourism companies often value volume và quantity without regards to lớn the local culture. Examples of general tourism businesses include resorts, lodges, hotels, gift shops with non-local retail, theme parks & large cruises.

Example:Luxury Hotel

PROFILE:

5 Targets a specific tourist market (open in summer, closed in winter) 5 Located in a growing rural community 5 Owned & managed by non-residents 5 15-25% local hiring 5 Near private residences 5 Near a large National Park 5 424 person maximum capacity on 200 acres

In terms of economic development, this hotel has brought business and tourism opportunities to the community. The influx of visitors lớn the community provides some local people an employment opportunity with the hotel. Locals may also provide entertainment (local tours, rafting, crafts, etc.) to lớn the hotel guests. However, if the local people bởi vì not meet the needs of the tourists, non-local businesses (including the hotel) may chose lớn capitalize on the crowds that the khách sạn has brought by providing the services they feel are needed.

The Copper River Wilderness Lodge in Copper Center Alaska is an example of “General Tourism” development that has impacted the community.

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The Big Question:

The opening of this hotel for business made the community a tourist destination. Did the community have a chance lớn develop infrastructure lớn protect themselves from any negative impacts of having large crowds of people visit the community?

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The photo above shows an Indian owned RV park và Campground in Chistochina, Alaska. RV Parks can be categorized as general tourism, but the owners of this park strive lớn meet ecotourism standards by educating the tourists about the local culture, participating in community tourism workshops & by networking with other businesses. They are an integral part of community planning and development.

POINTS khổng lồ CONSIDER

5Tourism, as a global industry, is relatively new. Most of the major tourist facilities were developed in the last 30 years.

5Tourism can, & does, have significant economic advantages for communities - tourism is big business.

5 Mass tourism can harm communities & exploit cultures if not developed with care.

5 Tourism development can conflict with ecological preservation và local use.

Tourism can be developed sensibly and with sensitivity to lớn the local environment.

B. Eco-Tourism Development PART 1

The defining characteristic of ecotourism is that it has little or no damaging impact on the community và environment, is community based, includes some educational format, và employs local people và expertise.

Ecotourism considers the environmental & community impact of tourism development. Examples of ecotourism businesses include xe đạp rentals, hiking tours, wildlife viewing tours, cultural interpretation, rafting, eco-adventure, small lodges, và community based businesses. Ecotourism can include a wide spectrum of opportunities for the visitor.

Example:Wilderness Retreat

PROFILE:

5 Locally owned and operated 5 Targets a specific clientele of independent wilderness travelers 5 Located near a large National Park 5 Located in a rural area off of the main road 5 20 person maximum capacity on 80 acres

This remote retreat is an example of an ecotourism business. Cabin rentals, a groomed trail system (for hiking & skiing), guided canoe trips down the local river, và home- made breakfast (often using ingredients from the garden) are some of the services this rural retreat offers. Solar panels and a wind generator power the main house, and the water is pumped lớn the house using a hydro-ram.

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Courtesy of Huck Hobbit Tours

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Courtesy of Huck Hobbit Tours
The International Eco-tourism Society defines eco-tourism as “responsible travel khổng lồ natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well-being of the local people.

The Big Question:

This moderately developed wilderness retreat is currently a low-impact operation. With continued growth & development, the business may have an adverse effect on the local environment How can an eco-tourism business have maximum user volume and economic benefit without negatively impacting the environment & community?

Courtesy of Huck Hobbit Tours
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Canoeists enjoy a quiet day on the Slana river in Interior Alaska.

POINTS to lớn CONSIDER

5 Advertising as an ecotourism business will attract a specific type of environmentally conscience clientele.

5 A wilderness tour is not necessarily ecotourism unless it is directly linked to lớn ecotourism principals of protecting nature and bringing tangible benefits to lớn local people.

Xem thêm:

5 A growing number of travelers are seeking a wilderness experience.

5 Any given wilderness area has a limit as to lớn how many people it can handle without damage to lớn the environment. The ecotourism business must recognize the limit and know when lớn stop development.

C. Cultural Tourism Development PART 1

The World Tourism Association defines cultural tourism as “an immersion in the natural history, human heritage, the arts & philosophy, và the institutions of another region or country.”

Cultural tourism is another niche in the tourism industry. A cultural focus can be included in any tourism plan.

Cultural tourism helps the tourist learn about và experience different cultures. Examples of cultural attractions include arts và crafts, language, religion, music, traditions, folklore và history. Cultural tourism can also help the visitor understand the present culture in relation to lớn the cultural history.

A tourist visiting Chistochina, Alaska may experience cultural tourism by looking at a fish wheel and learning about the historical & modern day significance of salmon lớn the local people. A tourist visiting San Francisco may experience cultural tourism through a museum or an interpretive tour through Chinatown.

Interpretation is an important aspect of providing the visitor with a broad understanding of the local culture.

CULTURAL INTERPRETATION TELLS THE STORY BEHIND THE FACTS & HELPS THE VISITOR SEE THE WHOLE PICTURE.

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For example: A tourist in Chistochina, Alaska can view a fish wheel and learn about how it is used. The tour guide could also tell the visitor the history of the Katie John vs. State of Alaska case. Katie John is a Native Elder who had to fight the state government for the right lớn fish at her traditional fish camp. The story in itself is dynamic and could lead to a lively discussion of other historical and modern day cultural issues.

The fishwheel turns throughout the summer on the Copper River in Chistochina, Alaska. Courtesy of Andy Rabung

The goal of cultural interpretation is to lớn tell a compelling story, about a particular subject matter that will ultimately move the visitor và leave them caring more about the area they are visiting.

The Big Question:

How do you promote tourism in native communities without exploiting the culture?

A common & valid concern among Native people is that by promoting cultural tourism, the tribe may experience a loss in traditional values & lifestyle. It is essential to lớn put a lot of thought & care into your visitor management plan in order to lớn avoid these complications. The whole community should nói qua input on setting tourism guidelines for the area.

ALWAYS INCLUDE THE ELDERS IN DEFINING HOW to BEST REPRESENT THE INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF THE AREA.

It may be inappropriate or disrespectful to giới thiệu certain information outside of the tribe. Mix up a meeting in which the Elders can clearly define what can be shared và what should not be shared. Any business or community thành viên who is giving out cultural information needs to be aware of how the tribe feels about sharing information or describing their culture.

POINTS to lớn CONSIDER

5 Culture sells: If you don"t tell your story, someone else will.

5Tourists are vulnerable lớn misinterpretation and misinformation. It is important lớn evaluate how the tourist is learning about the local culture. Who is doing the teaching? Is it accurate? Is it authentic? Is it misleading? Does it give the wrong impression?

5 It is important lớn provide information about the present day culture as well as the cultural history. This information gives the visitor a well-rounded view và helps avoid stereotypes & misinterpretation.

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Elder Jerry Charley teaching Mentasha youth how to lớn make a traditional drum. Courtesy of Megan Holloway

D. Tourism With Integrity PART 1

TOURISM CAN support YOUR EFFORTS khổng lồ MAINTAIN and STRENGTHEN TRADITIONAL LIFESTYLES và VALUES.

5 It has been said, “nothing destroys culture faster than poverty”. Tourism is a viable solution for boosting the local economy & supporting local pride và creativity.

5 Tribal members can create a home-based economy to provide the tribal members the opportunity khổng lồ work in the local area & stay close to family and traditions.

5 Tribal members can develop businesses that include traditional practices.

FOR EXAMPLE: Imagine a young tribal thành viên helping an Elder facilitate a moose hide tanning demonstration. By doing this demonstration, the tribal member is learning và practicing a traditional craft and getting paid for it!